Googling “How do computers work?” The real question is how a program instructs a computer what to do. No page without the word ‘address’ can claim to explain how computers work. Wikipedia is the 6th Google entry and the first to talk about addresses. This may help.
This book starts with circuits. It proceeds thru a 4 bit processor in almost too much detail. It presumes an elementary knowledge of electricity.
This has good and interesting historic information of the sort I would try to write if I had the time. It goes well beyond the requirements I had in mind.
This actually describes some real simple programs and the instructions that compose them. It is slightly more and less than I had in mind.
All together the above references include the basic information on what it means to be a program, and how the hardware ‘understands’ the program. They are for a variety of audiences. I had not thought to describe a vacuum tube or transistor but some would like that too. There are many web sources on analog versions of these, and a few good sources on the digital versions.
My stuff to be coordinated. Perhaps we should start from there.
First the Program Counter.
This discriminates between sorts of registers.
701 add loop.