What is the World Made of?

Descartes said “I think therefore I am”. To him thoughts were the primal reality—the category that he could not doubt. Some would say “Damn, I stepped on a sharp rock.” and to them, at least at that time, the rock was the most real and indubitable thing. Others would say “Sally is angry with me.” and such people might see other people as ultimate reality.

Certainly people differ from time to time, but I think people have biases towards such bottoming out of reality. If you bottom out with people you are more likely to see some sort of God as the prime mover. The rock person may be more likely to imagine the first rock. Descartes believed in God as did most intellectuals of his day. He might have been attracted to Tegmark’s universe as mathematical reality. Krauss describes a ‘Universe from Nothing’, which may seem an oxymoron, but so are all of the bottoms.